I just want to let you know that this article is absolute gold. You’re the real MVP for conducting a meta-analysis on this topic, especially when it’s so hard to find much research out there. More importantly, you’ve paved a way to explain more fully why strength training is so great for women to women and the benefits of it in comparison to men. Research is not only assuring and affirming, but it’s convincing for people who dabble with the idea of something, so thank you! Anyways, very well done and please keep doing what you’re doing!
I started training when I was about 17 years old.I’ve always loved weight training! And despite all the warnings my friends, family and “MOM” gave me about bulking up & looking like a man, I never listened to them – not because I knew all the amazing effects of progressive overload back then. But lifting weights (and increasing them over a period of time) gave me a sense of euphoria. The 5 lb dumbbell that was so hard to lift in the beginning seemed like cotton – 2 months into it! I guess I’m trying to say is – I’m so glad I did not be “girly” and lift pink dumbbells! 🙂

Step By Step Strength Training with Petra Kolber is one hour and five minutes and was released on DVD on May 4th, 2010. The video can be broken down to the two twenty minute segments and the two ten minute segments and the five minute abs segment. For me the video is an intermediate level workout. Granted the workouts are great, but goes at a little to fast a pace and there is no step by step instruction. When I first saw the preview videos on Amazon and YouTube they looked easy, but when you put them into practice it is a whole different story. It is for this video and others as well that I am an advocate for labeling the workouts: beginner, intermediate, advanced or something like it. Step By Step Strength Training with Petra Kolber gets a B-.


There are a lot of misconceptions about strength training for women, and there are a lot of reasons for those misconceptions.  Women are less likely to be represented in exercise research, women are less likely to take part in strength training or compete in strength sports, and there are still a lot of societal biases against women lifting (heavy) weights.

I weigh only 41kgs.. Slim for the most part but like most women wanted to lose belly fat and i wanted to start building muscle.. I know that you cant do targeted fat loss in certain area of our body… I have started lifting weights for just two months and i can feel and see my upper arms shaping. My question is guess, should i bulk up to build muscle??
Jessica Smith TV shares a unique collection of videos with 7-minute, 10-minute and 30-minute in-home exercise programs. She offers a really great variety of workout styles – Some focus on fat burning, others on cardio conditioning, workouts for beginners, kickboxing workouts and more. Jessica is an energetic instructor that will motivate you to join her.
Remember Billy Blanks, the guy behind the Tae Bo craze? Now his son, Billy Blanks, Jr. is getting in on the family business. Along with his wife, Sharon Catherine Blanks, Billy Jr. will help you learn various types of dance styles in this fun workout DVD. The duo takes you through six 5-minute cardio routines that are inspired by dance styles from all over the world: hip-hop, Bollywood, African, disco, and country. It's designed for the whole family, so the kids can join in too!
This video is good for starting out. I was sore after doing it but I didn't feel like i was going to keel over or anything. I mean you'll definitely grow out of this video but it's good to get your head back in the muscle building routine. I'd also recommend this for like someone in their 40's+ because it's low impact and will just help you keep your strength up.
How her body has reacted: Besides losing 8 pounds (which I couldn’t do before for the life of me with just jogging) in just three weeks, I’ve noticed I am starting to look cut again. There is definition in my abs and arms, which I’ve not seen in a long time. I feel tight, and my skin feels better all over, has better texture. I’ve also increased my normal running speed on the treadmill from 4.2 to 5.5 miles per hour in just three weeks. I feel stronger all over, and can run up and down the stairs in my house just doing chores!
I also like that you mentioned the menstrual cycle differences. Many women and coaches aren’t aware of this (although intuitively they should have been), but it does make a difference. I did a write up on this a few months back, and a big key I see here as well is the impact on appetite (more research on this) and perceived exertion (more anecdotal). Useful for dieting phases to work that in as well. Or for a little recomp

Hey Alejandro! Yep, I’ve read it. I ALMOST picked it for MASS a couple months ago, actually, and it’s included in the lit review for my thesis project (we’re using load/velocity profiles to track fatigue recovery in men and women). Tell me if I’m crazy, but it seems like the effect sizes were just large because the variability was so low. Looking at figure 1, it doesn’t seem like the differences are really all that large or meaningful.
Sitting up straight on your hands and knees, knees wide and big toes touching. Exhale then lean forward, draping your torso between your thighs and extending your arms forward, palms down. Push your butt back as you reach your arms forward as far as possible. This is your starting position. Keep pushing your butt back as you lift your right arm off the ground; thread it under your left armpit, reaching to the left as far as possible. Pause and feel the stretch, then, continuing to push your butt back and keep your left hand on the ground, reach your right hand toward the ceiling. Pause, then return your right hand to the start position. Repeat on the other side. That’s 1 rep.

When you engage in strength training, the exercises don’t just affect your muscles. According to the American Council on Exercise (ACE), it can also have major effects on your physical health, such as reducing blood pressure, improving cholesterol, and reducing your risk of diabetes. Better yet, it can also improve your ability to perform daily activities, such as lifting boxes or moving household items – all because it improves your strength, coordination, and flexibility.


Stand with medium-weight dumbbells held at your shoulders, elbows pointing forward, core tight. Keeping your core tight and your chest up, lunge backwards with your right knee, stepping backwards then lowering that knee until it touches the ground or until your left thigh is parallel with the ground. Pause, then drive back up and repeat the process on the other leg. Alternate legs until time expires. Do 3 sets.
Start in pushup position, hands directly below your shoulders, feet slightly wider than hips-width apart. Now lift your right foot off the ground and place it just outside your right hand. Bend your right knee as you do this and try to keep your left leg straight. Feel the stretch along your hips, then return to plank position and repeat on the other side. Thats 1 rep.
"I tried many home workouts but I always end up going back to ShaunT. Insanity Max30 is my current favorite. At 30 minutes it feels like the perfect length and it's a very well-rounded workout. It's crazy intense and easily the hardest workout I've ever done! I did three, 60-day rounds of it last year and lost some weight. I'm down a clothing size and have been able to maintain my weight loss. I've also gained muscle. But perhaps my favorite benefit is that all the interval training has really boosted my cardiovascular fitness. My resting heart rate has dropped by 10 beats per minute!" —Katie Stumpf, Milledgeville, GA
Jillian Michaels, the star trainer on "The Biggest Loser" TV series, has a series of workout videos that feature her boot camp style of motivation. "No More Trouble Zones" is a DVD that highlights classic exercises such as squats, triceps kickbacks and lunges with bicep curls. Cathe Friedrich is known for her challenging workouts using an ultra-high step and heavy weights. Her "Butts and Guts," "Muscle Max" and "Core Max" workout videos will challenge even advanced exercisers. Kathy Smith's "Lift Weights to Lose Weight Double" offers seven 26-minute workouts targeting every muscle using a Swiss ball and dumbbells. Master instructor Karen Voight's "Firm Arms and Abs" and "Lean Legs and Buns" are two separate 40-minute videos that will define your entire body. "Maximum Body Shaping" includes 46 minutes of classic dumbbell toning exercises and intense plyometrics to accelerate muscle fatigue.
So you think you can't dance? Now you can—and get "a good cardio workout," one reviewer said, to boot. You'll quickly love the hip-hop mix that makes up the 45-minute sesh in Groov3's Dance Sweat Live. The easy-to-learn choreography is broken down step-by-step for newbies before each sequence, "which allows you to gain confidence in your dancing as if nobody's watching" but hustles along so that "you're sweating" by the time you get into the rhythm.
I have all these cutouts from magazines, newspapers, etc with all kinds of great exercises. But this book has it all & in color. It has three level of exercises; beginners, intermediate and advanced--plus extras for different problems at each level. I was loaned a copy from my physical therapist to learn some exercises specific to my problems. After one week, I knew I needed to puchase my own copy, so I did and am delighted with it. It has all the exercises I need to do, inclluding use of stability balls of various sizes, weights, therabands, and others. I am able to exercise in my home, on my schedule, when I need, which giives me flexability. Great book for any woman who needs to start or maintain a good safe exercise program.
This video is good for starting out. I was sore after doing it but I didn't feel like i was going to keel over or anything. I mean you'll definitely grow out of this video but it's good to get your head back in the muscle building routine. I'd also recommend this for like someone in their 40's+ because it's low impact and will just help you keep your strength up.
"I started with seven or eight rounds of P90X, not to get ‘ripped’ but to stay in shape. I have also tried and loved the expansion packs, P90X2 and P90X3. I love that I can switch loads of laundry during a water break, not worry about what kind of weather is outside, and work out while my kids are home. The biggest changes I have seen are in my arms, back, legs, and stomach.” —Wendy Brown, Boise, ID
Next, bend your arms and slowly lower yourself until your chest is just about to touch the floor. Hold the position for a second. After holding it, straighten your arms again to return to the starting position. This is one repetition. Continue for up to 12 repetitions. To make it harder, try placing a gym bag or textbook on your back to add additional weight.
It can also be super helpful to have a workout buddy, coach or motivational fitness group to help you stay on track and keep you motivated. This is an open invitation to enroll in Rock Your Life, my online fitness and coaching community where you can get motivated, work with me and the other Team Betty Rocker coaches, and meet hundreds of other women who are working on their fitness goals.
In a 2011 opinion poll reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), less than 20 percent of women contacted said they accomplished the CDC’s recommendations for 2 1/2 hours of aerobic exercise and two periods of strength training weekly. Yet the benefits speak for themselves. Inactive adults experience a 3 to 8 percent loss of muscle mass per decade. Resistance training may increase resting metabolism by about 7 percent and help minimize muscle loss.
How to do it: "Every woman should do a full-body strength-training routine—such as this one—two days a week," says Perkins. "Then, on top of that, you may add the other components of fitness like yoga, dance, walking, or swimming." (Add one of these 3 new walking workouts that blast fat to your exercise routine.) You can complete all of these moves in one workout, or you can split them up if you're short on time. The key is consistency. Aim to complete 3 sets for each move, and choose a weight that makes it challenging to complete the final rep of each set.
Perform three dumbbell weights sessions. You have easy access to weight training gear at the gym, where free weights and machines are at the ready. But dumbbell lifting can be done easily at the gym or at home. Try having dumbbells conveniently placed in the house so that it's easy to pump out a few dozen repetitions in between other activities or even while watching TV, videos, or listening to music. Check out the beginner resources to get familiar with how weight training works.
Start in pushup position, with your hands directly beneath your shoulders. Tighten your core and glutes and perform a pushup, lowering your torso to an inch from the ground. Press back to the start, and as you do this, remove your right arm from the ground and touch your right hand to your left shoulder. Pause for one second in this position tightening your core and trying to keep your hips level, then return to the starting pushup position. Repeat the process on the other side. This move will challenge you, but you’re continuing to build core stability. Alternate reps on each side for 3 sets. During Week 5, do the move for 40 seconds during each set, then rest for 20. During Week 6, work for 50 seconds, then rest for 10.
As for muscle growth, there are certainly women who are genetically better at building muscle than other women… just like some men have better genetics for it than other men. But even then, the worst case scenario is that she builds whatever amount of muscle she’d like to build faster than the average woman can (which, by the way, is still fairly slow) and then just stops trying to build additional muscle beyond that point by simply training to maintain rather than progress.

I have a question that I’m pretty embarrassed to ask in person so I’d like your opinion on it. I am a woman who prefers wearing men’s clothing. My current measurements make me fit a men’s XS. Even though I am a woman and it’s harder to build muscle, is it realistic for me to expect to bulk up at least to reach a size S or will results never be that big? I guess my question is, how much can a woman bulk up naturally by doing weight training? Thanks so much.
I’m sure there are some people in a state of mild disbelief as this point.  After all, men have more testosterone, and testosterone is anabolic; therefore, men should be at a huge advantage when it comes to building muscle and gaining strength, right?  An implication of this analysis is that, assuming a given woman and a given man start with similar amounts of muscle mass and strength, they’d be likely to gain the same amount of muscle and strength if they both started lifting.  That just doesn’t sit right with some people.
Because of all of the muscle groups engaged simultaneously, this one is a calorie torcher! We estimate that in the 33 minutes of this video, the vast majority of the population will expend 8-12 calories a minute. That’s roughly 264-396 total. Here’s the thing; you can easily step up the burn even more by grabbing weights that are heavy & challenging for you to lift. Just make sure that you don’t ever sacrifice form for a heavier weight.
This: But, there is still no difference whatsoever in terms of the approach. The same things still have to be done. The only difference is, when someone only looking to build a smaller amount of muscle reaches that goal, they stop right there and just maintain from that point on. The person looking to get “bigger and bulkier” would just keep on going.

What she does now: I’m really new to the weightlifting, and I love/hate it. I hate it because it is so foreign to me, and I have all sorts of preconceived ideas about who should really be doing weightlifting. Since it’s new to me, and I’m already experiencing a significant shift in the body in terms of inches, I have cut back on my other workouts. I’m doing hot yoga to stretch out and continuing with the swimming.
And while cardiovascular exercises such as walking, jogging or biking are important for heart and lung efficiency, it is strength training that provides the benefits that keep your body younger, stronger and more functional as each year passes by. If you want to be vibrant and independent for many more years, this strength-training workout will help you achieve just that.
I hope you can take something away from this article.  If you’re a woman, I hope it was illuminating and empowering.  If you train women, I hope it was informative. Men and women are more alike than different when it comes to training responses, but similar doesn’t mean identical.  Women are not just smaller versions of men, though they should expect the same relative rate of progress a man would.
Unfortunately, protein is a nutrient often downplayed when it comes to women’s diets. For some reason, many people seem to think women don’t need to emphasize protein in their diets, but I am here to tell you that we DO. Protein is made up of amino acids, the building blocks of many tissues in the body, including muscle. Certain amino acids are “essential”, which means the body cannot make them and they must be obtained through your diet. When you workout, you breakdown muscle tissue. In order to repair that muscle tissue and gain lean mass and become stronger, you must give the body protein to supply the amino acids needed for recovery. If you do not get enough protein in your diet your body will not have enough amino acids, specifically essential amino acids, to work properly and recovery from workouts. Where will it get these amino acids you are lacking?
Cardio history: Before I started lifting, I did many endurance events. Once I stopped playing soccer in college, I began to run and completed 10 marathons, including qualifying for and running the Boston Marathon. Running eventually led to triathlons, including three full Ironmans. During this time, I was running five days a week, anywhere from 5 to 20 miles, biking three to five days between 60 minutes and three hours, and swimming three days for about an hour.
Now, using a lot of force, quickly squat back up into a standing position while thrusting the pelvis forward.  Keep your arms straight, but don’t use your arms to lift it up. This action acts like a spring for the water jug, propelling the water jug forward. You want your thrust to propel the water jug to chest level. Do not use your arm strength to lift the water jug – your legs and pelvis should only initiate the water jug to move.

Texas-based actress and yoga instructor Adriene Mishler brought her motto “Find What Feels Good” to YouTube and hasn’t looked back since. From her videos on weight loss, with a strange juxtaposition of calming words and sweat-inducing poses, to her practices focusing on specific ailments like anxiety and migraines, the channel runs the gamut of mind-body improvement. Further, with shorter, focused clips detailing proper form of popular poses, Mishler carefully instructs users on the basics of yoga in a safe manner. For both beginners and the seasoned yogi, we recommend doing any of her 30-day programs—the perfect way to measure progress in the practice over time.
The unfortunate problem with injury prevention is that no one seems to worry about it until they’re already injured or in pain.  On the surface, some women appear to be exceptionally strong, but upon closer inspection, they’re actually ticking time bombs for an injury because they never built a solid foundation of good movement before piling on the heavy weights.
Lie with your belly and chest on an incline bench set to a 40-degree incline, holding dumbbells in both hands, arms hanging naturally. Squeeze your shoulder blades, then pull the dumbbells up toward your lower chest, aiming to drive your elbows as high as possible. Continue to hold the left dumbbell in this position as you lower the right dumbbell back to the start slowly. Then slowly lower the left dumbbell back to the start. Do another rep, this time lowering the left dumbbell back to the start first. Do 3 sets.
That's because women lose up to 5% of their lean muscle tissue per decade, starting in their 30s—and that number increases after 65. "I cannot stress enough how important muscle mass is to your life," says Perkins. "There is a direct correlation between your health and the amount of muscle mass that you have. The more you build, the faster your metabolism hums, the tighter and firmer you get, and the easier it is to lose weight and keep it off." It also decreases your risk for diabetes, stroke, heart disease, and makes you less likely to fall or become injured.
While I was training for endurance events ... at times I felt run down, and it would be hard to eat properly and I would end up bingeing. I also was in the constant mindset of needing to be thinner to excel in endurance events, which would lead me to eat too few calories and again I would end up bingeing. So although my calorie burn was much higher while training for marathons and Ironmans, my nutrition was not nearly as good. The other thing that has changed is my confidence. I was always self-conscious of having big thighs, now I embrace them because they are strong thighs. These thighs let me squat a lot of weight! It is funny, I am even more confident in my running (short distances, of course!) and have run a lifetime mile personal record this year. I am so much more confident in my own skin, which transfers to all aspects of my life.
Yohimbine is an alpha2 receptor antagonist. The catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) is released in times of stress and intense activity to increase the amount of available energy by releasing stores nutrients (i.e. fatty acids from fat cells). NE activates both the beta and alpha adrenergic receptors. Activation of the beta receptors increases fatty acid liberation from fat cells while activation of the alpha receptor inhibits liberation of fatty acids.
Remember Billy Blanks, the guy behind the Tae Bo craze? Now his son, Billy Blanks, Jr. is getting in on the family business. Along with his wife, Sharon Catherine Blanks, Billy Jr. will help you learn various types of dance styles in this fun workout DVD. The duo takes you through six 5-minute cardio routines that are inspired by dance styles from all over the world: hip-hop, Bollywood, African, disco, and country. It's designed for the whole family, so the kids can join in too!
Hordinine increases the liberation of NE and also decreases its breakdown, leading to both faster and prolonged stimulatory effect from NE. Liberating NE and prolonging its activity will lead to more energy and greater lipolysis. Hordinine also inhibits the Monoamine Oxidases-B (MAO-B) enzyme, which is responsible for the breakdown of dopamine. Dopamine is a catecholamine involved in the regulation of appetite, mood, and other functions. Prolonging dopamine’s activity will lead to an improvement in mood and a decrease in appetite, both of which are beneficial while dieting. Hordinine gives you more energy, decreases your appetite, improves your mood, and increases fat loss.
This is important. Lifting weights on stiff or “cold” joints and muscles will make it harder to move, and you’ll increase the risk of injury. If you’re weight training, warm your body up either with some cardiovascular activity that utilizes the muscles you’re going to work, or do a short set with a lighter amount of weight than you’re planning to use for your workout.
Tbh, I think bias assessment is a bit different here vs. topics where the hypothesis is that there are differences between two things (you generally wouldn’t state a hypothesis in a meta-analysis, but there’s generally one there implicitly). The primary bias in research is publication bias – you slice and dice data to get significant findings, and significant findings are way more likely to get published than non-significant findings. So, if there’s high risk of bias and significant differences, you should probably assume the actual mean effect is smaller than the one you came up with.
"I started with seven or eight rounds of P90X, not to get ‘ripped’ but to stay in shape. I have also tried and loved the expansion packs, P90X2 and P90X3. I love that I can switch loads of laundry during a water break, not worry about what kind of weather is outside, and work out while my kids are home. The biggest changes I have seen are in my arms, back, legs, and stomach.” —Wendy Brown, Boise, ID

Primarily, your diet should consist of whole foods. Sometimes, though, you can't get all the necessary nutrients from eating whole foods—even if you think your diet is perfect. That's where supplements swoop in. Supplements should complement your diet of whole foods; they should never be a replacement for something you intentionally leave out of your diet.
To quote James, “Variations in your blood levels of testosterone impact your ‘base’ level of muscle, but have minimal impact on your relative (%) gains.  Thus, having higher testosterone levels means having a higher base level of muscle.  While the relative gains will be mostly similar, the absolute gains will be higher due to the higher baseline.”  
Low blood flow could cause the accumulation of FFA within adipose tissue resulting in less available FFA to be oxidized and a greater chance of FFA to be turned back into triglycerides. It has been found that the stubborn fat areas (thighs and butt) have poor blood flow. Therefore in order to get rid of stubborn fat we must increase blood flow. What is the best way to increase blood flow? Exercise! In addition to this certain supplements can also increase blood flow (more on this later). Increasing blood flow throughout the body will assist in losing weight by transporting FFA to where they can be burned.
Strangely, however, I couldn’t find a meta-analysis comparing strength gains and muscle growth in men and women.  I say “strangely” because there are meta-analyses covering damn near every facet of strength training under the sun.  Typically, once there are around a dozen studies on a given topic, someone’s going to do a meta-analysis. However, there have been 70+ studies comparing strength gains and muscle growth in men and women over the past 44 years, and no meta-analyses.
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