I may include post-menopausal women at some point, but I won’t for my thesis. The basic reason is that I want to use trained subjects (since I’m mainly interested in fatigue and recovery, that’s a more homogenous population. With untrained folks, you get some people who are in great shape who just don’t lift weights, and some people who are total couch potatoes. Those differences make a huge difference in fatigue and recovery, independent of sex), and I’d have a hell of a time trying to find enough post-menopausal, trained subjects in Chapel Hill (which isn’t a huge city) who were willing to participate. There is actually quite a bit of research on post-menopausal women, though. This pubmed query should include a lot of it: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=((resistance%20train*)%20OR%20strength%20train*)%20AND%20((menopaus*)%20OR%20postmenopaus*)
Many people think of running or putting in 30 minutes on the elliptical as an example of moderate intensity cardio.  While this is technically true, you can do any activity that keeps your heart rate in that 120 to 140 range. Of course, if you love running, who are we to make you stop?  Just keep in mind that as “simple” as running seems, it’s an extremely advanced exercise that’s repetitive and high-impact.  If it’s not done with great form, your likelihood of injury increases significantly (just like with lifting weights).
In this case, most of the comparisons were nonsignificant, so if there are more unpublished null results floating around out there, they’d just reinforce the main finding here (and, in point of fact, there were; I also came across about a dozen studies stating that there were no significant differences between men and women in either strength or hypertrophy, but they didn’t report enough number or have figures to actually make a quantitative comparison). And for the significant differences, I don’t mind too much if they’re potentially overestimates because a) I’m very confident they’re true differences (I calculated how large of a true null would be needed to get below the significance threshold – it would take a study with anywhere from 3,000-11,000 subjects, depending on the comparison) and I’m not too hung up on the actual magnitude and b) I think the differences are probably only applicable for short-term training responses anyways (no differences in studies lasting 20+ weeks) so a misestimation of magnitude for short-term differences wouldn’t impact long-term implications to any real degree anyways.
Tracking what you do in the gym is critical because if you don’t, it’s unlikely that you will push yourself and the weights that you’re using.  This will slow down not only gym progress, but aesthetic progress as well. Keep track of what you’re doing in the gym, workout to workout, week to week, month to month. Write down your sets, reps, and the weight you used. Make notes about each workout (for example, “weight felt easy, can go up next week” or “feeling a little sluggish today, didn’t push it.”)  This will allow you to know when to push, and know when to take it easy.
Ask 100 women this year what their New Year’s resolution will be and a third will likely answer “weight loss” in to look fitter and more toned. Many of these women will join a gym (or actually start using their membership) and center their workout around high-intensity sessions on the treadmill, elliptical, or any other cardio machine.  Running on the treadmill 4 days a week may help you lose body fat, but without adding on muscle, it won’t give you that tight, toned look.
Cardio history: Before I started lifting, I did many endurance events. Once I stopped playing soccer in college, I began to run and completed 10 marathons, including qualifying for and running the Boston Marathon. Running eventually led to triathlons, including three full Ironmans. During this time, I was running five days a week, anywhere from 5 to 20 miles, biking three to five days between 60 minutes and three hours, and swimming three days for about an hour.
The general guideline for an active individual's intake of protein is about one gram of protein per pound of bodyweight. If you weigh 135 pounds, you would aim to eat approximately 135 grams of protein. Since it's difficult to consume that much protein in two or three meals, people tend to spread it out over multiple meals and ensure that some form of protein accompanies every meal.
The Bare Essentials Produce Extraordinary Results – all too often most people complicate health and fitness. But it’s not that complicated and this articles explain why (and how!) the bare essentials will allow you to achieve (and maintain) extraordinary results. You’ve save yourself a lot of time and frustration too when you harness the power of the essentials.

Fast forward to myself as a 30 something “skinnyfat” office worker/couch potato, I got into beginner level workouts with weights (body pump classes and kettlebell workouts). I worked out 3 times a week for 30 minutes, barely even that, did NO cardio and didn’t really diet (just upped my protein a bit and watched the carbs). The result after 7 weeks – the best body I ever had in my life, exactly the kind of dancer’s physique “girly workouts” claim to create. Better than on my dancer’s regimen.
The difference between strength training for women and weight training for women is mostly semantics. Some people might even refer to it as “weight lifting for women.”. However, “strength training” may sound less intimidating to someone who has never lifted weights before, and it can be a relief to know that you can strength train (especially in the beginning) using just your body weight. 
Now, using a lot of force, quickly squat back up into a standing position while thrusting the pelvis forward.  Keep your arms straight, but don’t use your arms to lift it up. This action acts like a spring for the water jug, propelling the water jug forward. You want your thrust to propel the water jug to chest level. Do not use your arm strength to lift the water jug – your legs and pelvis should only initiate the water jug to move.
The term “adrenaline” is commonly used to refer to the body’s excitatory catecholamines, Epinephrine (E) and Norepinephrine (NE), which are regulators of lipolysis (fat breakdown). NE and E acts on receptors called adrenergic receptors of which there are alpha (1 & 2) and beta (1, 2, & 3) subtypes. Activation of the alpha1 and beta-receptors is lipolytic (causes fat breakdown) while activation of the alpha2 receptor is anti-lipolytic (blunts fat breakdown). Stubborn fat areas have a high density of alpha2 receptors, making it harder for fat breakdown to occur in that area. If you are a women this means you have a large amount of alpha2 receptors in your thighs and glutes.

Tracking lifestyle markers improve can also be really motivating. They also give you valuable information about your progress.  For example, if you’ve been losing fat at a steady pace for six weeks, and suddenly, during the past two weeks, you’ve hit a plateau, take a look at your sleep and stress levels.  If your sleep has been poor for the last two weeks, there’s a good chance you’ve found the culprit.


The difference between strength training for women and weight training for women is mostly semantics. Some people might even refer to it as “weight lifting for women.”. However, “strength training” may sound less intimidating to someone who has never lifted weights before, and it can be a relief to know that you can strength train (especially in the beginning) using just your body weight. 
Why she switched: One day, I overheard another instructor say, “If you’re trying to lose weight, you need to incorporate weights into your workout routine, not just cardio.” That was the first time I’d really heard that. After a while of just cardio, I hit a plateau and didn’t really see any changes in my body, so I decided to start lifting. The biggest motivator for me was having a lifting buddy who was also just starting out, so we could keep each other accountable.

Then imagine if you could fuel your muscles DURING your workout to encourage lean muscle growth and endless energy with enhanced recovery. If you’re like anyone here at PGN or Team Scivation, this is a dream come true. Time to stop dreaming. Scivation Xtend is the ULTIMATE pre, during and post workout formula ever created. It has even created its own category—Workout Nutrition™. Scivation VasoCharge, formerly known as VasoXplode, has become the standard in pre workout supplementation featuring Beta Alanine, NO Enhancers, Mental Performance Boosters and the VasoRush™ Blend. Scivation now gives it to you in one complete stack at an unbelievable price. The Scivation Workout Nutrition Stack™ is here, and it is time for you to get your swole on.
Step By Step Strength Training with Petra Kolber is one hour and five minutes and was released on DVD on May 4th, 2010. The video can be broken down to the two twenty minute segments and the two ten minute segments and the five minute abs segment. For me the video is an intermediate level workout. Granted the workouts are great, but goes at a little to fast a pace and there is no step by step instruction. When I first saw the preview videos on Amazon and YouTube they looked easy, but when you put them into practice it is a whole different story. It is for this video and others as well that I am an advocate for labeling the workouts: beginner, intermediate, advanced or something like it. Step By Step Strength Training with Petra Kolber gets a B-.
"I make my own home workouts from YouTube videos, online articles, and magazines. Most of my moves include high-intensity interval training, military exercises, and yoga. Working out at home is perfect for me because I hated the feeling of having to 'perform' at the gym, and I felt too intimidated to try new moves and equipment. Now I try new stuff all the time. I had neck surgery years ago, and my workouts have helped me regain my fitness and increase my endurance. I went from barely being able to walk to doing a Tough Mudder race. I'm also so much stronger—I can do pullups and handstand pushups now. I'm so proud of the way my body looks and performs." —Betty Nordengren, Aurora, IL
As for food, I’m a huge foodie. I can’t eat the same thing every day, but some staples I always come back to include: avocado toast with poached egg and smoked salmon; chickpeas pastas with parmesan; and crispy tempeh and sweet potatoes. And I have one huge non-negotiable indulgence: Once a week, I disconnect and watch a totally goofy movie, while eating a big bowl of oats, peanut butter, and granola. (Where are my Mean Girls lovers at?)
And while cardiovascular exercises such as walking, jogging or biking are important for heart and lung efficiency, it is strength training that provides the benefits that keep your body younger, stronger and more functional as each year passes by. If you want to be vibrant and independent for many more years, this strength-training workout will help you achieve just that.
How her body has reacted: I’ve noticed that I’m so much stronger, I have more energy and I’m less tired. My body fat is lower and I’m much leaner, and you can really see the muscles. Wearing dresses and skirts in the summer and feeling confident is when it all pays off. I love my routine and I love the results. I am constantly preaching to friends and clients about squatting and dead-lifting and how great it is. People always ask me if I’m a runner and I respond, “No I’m a squatter.” It takes dedication and, for me, working out is a way of life, not a temporary fix.

Get in position for a kettlebell swing, except this time, as you hike the weight back, take a small step to the right with your right leg. Shift your left leg as well. As soon as the left leg lands, forcefully drive your hips forward, initiating the kettlebell swing. Repeat the pattern, this time taking a step with your left leg. Alternate reps on both sides. Do 3 sets.
The hormone testosterone is responsible for the large increases in muscle mass seen when men lift weights. Women’s testosterone levels are a fraction of men’s testosterone levels. Normal testosterone levels in men are 200-1200 ng/dl while 15-70 ng/dl are normal in women. As you can see, men’s testosterone levels are SIGNIFICANTLY higher than women’s. Even if a man is at the LOW end of the men’s normal testosterone range (200 ng/dl), he still has more than twice the amount of testosterone as a woman at the HIGH end of the women’s normal testosterone range (70 ng/dl). If we look at the median or mid-range testosterone levels in men and women, men = 700 and women = 42.5. So on an average, men have 16.47 times more testosterone than women! It is clear that women do not have the hormonal support (testosterone) to gain muscle mass like men. Therefore, the fear of becoming big and bulky and looking like Arnold Schwarzenegger with a ponytail is unwarranted.
Step By Step Strength Training with Petra Kolber is one hour and five minutes and was released on DVD on May 4th, 2010. The video can be broken down to the two twenty minute segments and the two ten minute segments and the five minute abs segment. For me the video is an intermediate level workout. Granted the workouts are great, but goes at a little to fast a pace and there is no step by step instruction. When I first saw the preview videos on Amazon and YouTube they looked easy, but when you put them into practice it is a whole different story. It is for this video and others as well that I am an advocate for labeling the workouts: beginner, intermediate, advanced or something like it. Step By Step Strength Training with Petra Kolber gets a B-.
While I was training for endurance events ... at times I felt run down, and it would be hard to eat properly and I would end up bingeing. I also was in the constant mindset of needing to be thinner to excel in endurance events, which would lead me to eat too few calories and again I would end up bingeing. So although my calorie burn was much higher while training for marathons and Ironmans, my nutrition was not nearly as good. The other thing that has changed is my confidence. I was always self-conscious of having big thighs, now I embrace them because they are strong thighs. These thighs let me squat a lot of weight! It is funny, I am even more confident in my running (short distances, of course!) and have run a lifetime mile personal record this year. I am so much more confident in my own skin, which transfers to all aspects of my life.
Getting comfortable with a steady running routine is definitely something to be proud of, but when you're on that cardio grind day-in and day-out, you might be ready to change things up and take on a new challenge. Time to throw some strength training into the mix. It can be a little intimidating at first if you don't know where the hell to start, but understanding the basics can help you feel confident in your refreshed fitness routine.
Why: "The chest muscles (pectorals) for all women are particularly weak and underdeveloped," says Perkins. "By increasing the mass in this muscle group you are adding a substantial percentage of lean mass towards your overall health. Additionally, the chest muscles are responsible for supporting breast tissue. This move will bring a bit more lift to your chest."
I just encountered this article while looking for references to support my argument with someone on a website that their fears of becoming huge were unfounded. She is one of those women who does tend to put on a little more muscle than many of us, and she linked to a page loaded with images of steroid-chunked women as a an example of what she was afraid of.

For each exercise you do, try to perform three sets of 10 to 12 reps with a weight heavy enough that by your last rep you can't eke out another one without compromising your form. To spark further muscle building, William Kraemer, Ph.D., a professor of kinesiology at the University of Connecticut, suggests alternating moderate-intensity workouts of 8 to 10 reps with lighter-weight 12- to 15-rep sets and super-hard 3- to 5-rep sets. (For a more detailed fat-blasting workout, check out "Do This at Home," below.)


Thank you for this article – it confirms what I’ve read a few times, though sadly not often enough. I had this discussion with my sister that was at an all-girls gym – they ONLY have crappo machines, and you’re only allowed to use the free-weights if you’re working with a PT!! I shit you not… ANYWAY, I digress. I did have a question to ask – with regards to progression training, at what point do you decide to maintain, rather than constantly upping the intensity, or is that a really noob-y question??? =)
After a tough sweat, it's important to rehydrate your body: "Drink lots of water and thank your body for what it was just able to accomplish," says Davis. A balanced post-workout snack is also a good idea. Go for one with carbs refuel your glycogen stores (one of your body's main energy sources) and about 10 to 20 grams of protein to help build and repair your muscles. "Don’t overcomplicate it," says Davis. If you're lifting and weight loss is one of your goals, though, it's still important to keep calories in mind—a post-workout snack shouldn't be more than 150 to 200 calories. Here's a guide to how many calories you should be eating for weight loss.
In his new P90 DVD set, the supertrainer Tony Horton drops the "X" for an all-levels-welcome version of his wildly popular 90-day program. The 10 workouts—including total-body and core on the floor routines—are mapped out for you in a follow-along schedule. The modification options to the mix of cardio and resistance moves "make every set possible" for a gymlike intensity, testers said, all in 25 minutes. "It doesn't get much better than that," one reviewer raved.
Start in pushup position, hands directly below your shoulders, feet slightly wider than hips-width apart. Now lift your right foot off the ground and place it just outside your right hand. Bend your right knee as you do this and try to keep your left leg straight. Feel the stretch along your hips, then return to plank position and repeat on the other side. Thats 1 rep.
Start in plank position, shoulders directly over elbows, forearms and hands on the ground, core and glutes squeezed tight. Now lift your right arm off the ground and reach your hand forward. Pause for 1 second then return to the plank position. Repeat on the other side. Work to keep your hips as square as possible as you do this. Alternate reps on each side for 4 sets. Work for 40 seconds, then rest for 20 on each set during Week 3. During Week 4, work for 50 seconds, then rest for 10.

And this is where my fitness journey truly began. That said, I didn’t go from Cardio Fit Bunny to Girl Who Lifts in a week. I eased in by alternating between my HIIT and cardio-focused program a few days a week and weightlifting the others. After a few weeks, loving the way I felt lifting heavier, I gave my up the fat-burn routines and switched to weightlifting exclusively.

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